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Daikin Applied (UK) Ltd - Chillers

Chillers - Inverter Chillers - HVAC

Efficiency in Chillers

The evolution of a chiller has come a long way since the first ice production thermal storage machines from over 100 years ago, with a number of significant technological advances that mean chillers being supplied to the market today are more efficient than ever. In more recent times, the introduction of inverter technology to chillers such as those using screw compressors has seen a 15% increase in capacity and a 25% increase in efficiency for reduction in cost profile and all for a similar footprint chiller when compared to just five years ago.

Choosing inverter technology in chillers offers the best efficiency at full load and part load conditions, offering a rapid return on investment. The Daikin inverter screw solutions offer some key benefits, including:

  • Perfect comfort level provided with infinitely variable load regulation for precise leaving water temperature control thanks to step-less regulation
  • Compact footprint without compromise on duty output or efficiency
  • Ultra quiet operation down to 67dB(A) sound pressure power at full load & even lower at part load thanks to enhanced acoustic solutions
  • Unrivalled & proven reliability through extensive testing of chillers & components in laboratories, Daikin factories & selected job sites – even at extreme working conditions
  • Reduced inrush currents & high displacement power factor correction

Ecodesign – New Efficiency Targets

Whilst the advances in chiller technology have been primarily driven by market demands and manufacturers’ desire for continuous product development, efficiency targets are set to rise further. With building cooling demands ever increasing, central chiller plant is essential to meet client demands however HVAC machineries contribute to greenhouse gas emissions via the following:

  • INDIRECT emissions – linked with the machinery power consumption (and energy efficiency) EU Countermeasure: Ecodesign Directive
  • DIRECT emissions – due to possible leakages of refrigerant into the atmosphere EU Countermeasure is F-GAS Regulation

These countermeasures will be what drives chiller technology advancement over the coming years and are what should be considered when designing HVAC plant within buildings.

Direct emissions have been under regulation for some time and are largely unchanged in recent times with F-gas requirements for refrigerant handling, chiller leak detection and regular inspection regimes now common place in the market. These will continue to drive the reduction in direct emissions of refrigerant gases into the atmosphere.

The indirect emissions will be coming under a new legislation countermeasure to enhance the efficiency of equipment supplied to the market. The Ecodesign requirements are in a number of elements – firstly is the new European benchmark calculation for efficiency, to be known as SEER, under EN14825. This will undoubtedly cause some understandable confusion in the market as today we already have both ESEER and SEER for Part L calculations for chiller efficiency. The European Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio (ESEER) has been the standard European benchmark calculation nearly 10 years and is a weighted formula considering the variation of chiller efficiency (EER) with the partial load and variation of air inlet condenser temperatures. The calculation method is as follows:

Air Water Weighting Factors
A=EER at 100% 35.0°C 12.0 / 7.0°C 3%
B=EER at 75% 30.0°C 10.75 / 7.0°C 33%
C=EER at 50% 25.0° 9.5 / 7.0°C 41%
D=EER at 25% 20.0°C 8.25 / 7.0°C 23%
ESEER = 0.03A + 0.33B + 0.23D

Table 1: ESEER Calculation Methodology

The more recent index used in the UK is the SEER which follows the same calculation method as ESEER, however can look at more localised ambient weather data which for the UK can offer lower average ambient temperatures when compared with the ESEER. Also building bespoke part load data, if known, can be used in the SEER calculation. With both potential reduction in ambient and change in load profile leads to a more tailored SEER calculation and higher SEER result for your building, but as it is not a fixed set of conditions it makes comparing two different chiller efficiencies extremely difficult. The potential confusion in the market will be with the new SEER (EN14825) which is a benchmark figure as dedicated by a new calculation method.

The new SEER calculation is important as this is the benchmark figure used in definition of Ecodesign Lot 21 for cooling only chillers. Lot 21 is the critical minimum design efficiency legislation that all chillers will have to meet in order to be sold in the European market. Ecodesign comes into force on the 1st January 2018 and sets out minimum chiller efficiency targets the requirements to be met and a tiered implementation structure.

Why is Ecodesign – Lot 21 Important for the Market? What Does it Mean for Different Chillers?

Ecodesign is in force for all chillers sold into the EU from the 1st January 2018. Any chiller not meeting the Tier 1 requirements by this date will not be able to be supplied to the market. It is important for 3 main aspects:

1   HVAC equipment suppliers need to ensure that any chillers supplied meet these standards and have a duty to inform the market to of the new requirements and design based around the standards.

2   Consulting engineers and designers need to ensure that all design works from 2018 & 2021 onwards, as design based on chillers meeting these minimum efficiency standards.

3   Contractors will need to ensure that any procurement of equipment that is to be shipped to site after the enforcement dates will meet the standard.

The Ecodesign will gradually eliminate low efficiency products from the market whilst driving manufacturers to enhance existing product ranges to meet the upcoming benchmarks. The solution that will be at the forefront of design will be the inverter chiller solution.

daikin applied, chillers

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Daikin Applied (UK) Ltd
Head Office
Bassington Lane Industrial Estate
Cramlington
Northumberland NE23 8AF

Email Daikin Applied

(Cramlington): 01670 566159
(Dartford): 01322 424950

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